Medical Uses of Cannabis, THC and CBD

 

General Remarks

Nausea and Vomiting

Anorexia and Cachexia

Spasticity

Movement Disorders

Pain

Glaucoma

Epilepsy

Asthma

Dependency and Withdrawal

Psychiatric Symptoms

Autoimmune Diseases and Inflammation

Miscellaneous, Mixed Syndromes

 

Approved Use by State; all Cannabinoids*

 

Alaska

Arizona

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

District of Columbia

Hawaii

Illinois

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Montana

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

Oregon

Rhode Island

Vermont

Washington

 

 

Approved Use by State; only CBD (Cannabidiol) *

 

Alabama

Florida

Georgia

Idaho

Iowa

Kentucky

Mississippi

Missouri

New York

North Carolina

South Carolina

Tennessee

Utah

Virginia

Wisconsin

 

Studies and case reports

 

*The list of approved uses, generally and as permitted in each state may not be complete or up to date.

 

 

General Remarks

 

There are marked differences in the knowledge on the medical uses of cannabis and cannabinoids in different diseases. For nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, anorexia and cachexia in HIV/AIDS, chronic, especially neuropathic pain, spasticity in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury there is strong evidence for medical benefits. For many other indications, such as epilepsy, pruritus and depression there is much less available data. However, the scientific evidence for a specific indication does not necessarily reflect the actual therapeutic potential for a given disease.

 

 

Clinical studies with single cannabinoids or whole plant preparations (smoked cannabis, cannabis extract) have often been inspired by positive anecdotal experiences of patients employing crude cannabis products. The anti-emetic, the appetite enhancing, relaxing effects, analgesia, and therapeutic use in Tourette's syndrome were all discovered in this manner.

 

Incidental observations have also revealed therapeutically useful effects. This occurred in a study with patients with Alzheimer's disease wherein the primary issue was an examination of the appetite-stimulating effects of THC. Not only appetite and body weight increased, but disturbed behaviour among the patients also decreased. The discovery of decreased intraocular pressure with THC administration in the beginning of the 1970s was also serendipitous. Additional interesting indications that have not been scientifically investigated, but remain common problems in modern medicine may benefit from treatment with cannabis or cannabinoids. For this reason, surveys have been conducted questioning individuals that use cannabis therapeutically. They were conducted either as oral non-standardized interviews in the course of investigations of state or scientific institutions (House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology in the UK, Institute of Medicine in the USA) on the therapeutic potential of cannabis or as anonymous surveys using standardized questionnaires.

 

Nausea and Vomiting

 

Treatment of side effects associated with antineoplastic therapy is the indication for cannabinoids which has been most documented, with about 40 studies (THC, nabilone, other THC analogues, cannabis). Most trials were conducted in the 1980s. THC has to be dosed relatively highly, so that resultant side effects may occur comparatively frequently. THC was inferior to high-dose metoclopramide in one study. There are no comparisons of THC to the modern serotonin antagonists. Some recent investigations have shown that THC in low doses improves the efficacy of other antiemetic drugs if given together. In folk medicine cannabinoids are popular and are often used in other causes of nausea including AIDS and hepatitis.

 

 

Anorexia and Cachexia

 

An appetite enhancing effect of THC is observed with daily divided doses totalling 5 mg. When required, the daily dose may be increased to 20 mg. In a long-term study of 94 AIDS patients, the appetite-stimulating effect of THC continued for months, confirming the appetite enhancement noted in a shorter 6 week study. THC doubled appetite on a visual analogue scale in comparison to placebo. Patients tended to retain a stable body weight over the course of seven months. A positive influence on body weight was also reported in 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease who were previously refusing food.

 

 

Spasticity

 

In many clinical trials of THC, nabilone and cannabis, a beneficial effect on spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury has been observed. Among other positively influenced symptoms were pain, paraesthesia, tremor and ataxia. In some studies improved bladder control was observed. There is also some anecdotal evidence of a benefit of cannabis in spasticity due to lesions of the brain.

 

 

Movement Disorders

 

There are some positive anecdotal reports of therapeutic response to cannabis in Tourette's syndrome, dystonia and tardive dyskinesia. The use in Tourette's syndrome is currently being investigated in clinical studies. Many patients achieve a modest improvement, however some show a considerable response or even complete symptom control. In some MS patients, benefits on ataxia and reduction of tremor have been observed following the administration of THC. Despite occasional positive reports, no objective success has been found in parkinsonism or Huntington disease. However, cannabis products may prove useful in levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson disease without worsening the primary symptoms.

 

 

Pain

 

Large clinical studies have proven analgesic properties of cannabis products. Among possible indications are neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis, damage of the brachial plexus and HIV infection, pain in rheumatoid arthritis, cancer pain, headache, menstrual pain, chronic bowel inflammation and neuralgias. Combination with opioids is possible.

 

 

Glaucoma

 

In 1971, during a systematic investigation of its effects in healthy cannabis users, it was observed that cannabis reduces intraocular pressure. In the following 12 years a number of studies in healthy individuals and glaucoma patients with cannabis and several natural and synthetic cannabinoids were conducted. cannabis decreases intraocular pressure by an average 25-30%, occasionally up to 50%. Some non-psychotropic cannabinoids, and to a lesser extent, some non-cannabinoid constituents of the hemp plant also decrease intraocular pressure.

 

 

Epilepsy

 

The use in epilepsy is among its historically oldest indications of cannabis. Animal experiments provide evidence of the antiepileptic effects of some cannabinoids. The anticonvulsant activity of phenytoin and diazepam have been potentiated by THC. According to a few case reports from the 20th century, some epileptic patients continue to utililize cannabis to control an otherwise unmanageable seizure disorder. Cannabis use may occasionally precipitate convulsions.

 

 

Asthma

 

Experiments examining the anti-asthmatic effect of THC or cannabis date mainly from the 1970s, and are all acute studies. The effects of a cannabis cigarette (2% THC) or oral THC (15 mg), respectively, approximately correspond to those obtained with therapeutic doses of common bronchodilator drugs (salbutamol, isoprenaline). Since inhalation of cannabis products may irritate the mucous membranes, oral administration or another alternative delivery system would be preferable. Very few patients developed bronchoconstriction after inhalation of THC.

 

 

Dependency and Withdrawal

 

According to historical and modern case reports cannabis is a good remedy to combat withdrawal in dependency on benzodiazepines, opiates and alcohol. For this reason, some have referred to it as a gateway drug back. In this context, both the reduction of physical withdrawal symptoms and stress connected with discontinuance of drug abuse may play a role in its observed benefits.

 

 

Psychiatric Symptoms

 

An improvement of mood in reactive depression has been observed in several clinical studies with THC. There are additional case reports claiming benefit of cannabinoids in other psychiatric symptoms and diseases, such as sleep disorders, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorders, and dysthymia. Various authors have expressed different viewpoints concerning psychiatric syndromes and cannabis. While some emphasize the problems caused by cannabis, others promote the therapeutic possibilities. Quite possibly cannabis products may be either beneficial or harmful, depending on the particular case. The attending physician and the patient should be open to a critical examination of the topic, and a frankness to both possibilities.

 

 

Autoimmune Diseases and Inflammation

 

In a number of painful syndromes secondary to inflammatory processes (e.g. ulcerative colitis, arthritis), cannabis products may act not only as analgesics but also demonstrate anti-inflammatory potential. For example, some patients employing cannabis report a decrease in their need for steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Moreover there are some reports of positive effects of cannabis self-medication in allergic conditions. It is as yet unclear whether cannabis products may have a relevant effects on causative processes of autoimmune diseases.

 

 

Miscellaneous, Mixed Syndromes

 

There are a number of positive patient reports on medical conditions that cannot be easily assigned to the above categories, such as pruritus, hiccup, ADS (attention deficit syndrome), high blood pressure, tinnitus, chronic fatigue syndrome, restless leg syndrome, and others. Several hundreds possible indications for cannabis and THC have been described by different authors. For example, 2,5 to 5 mg THC were effective in three patients with pruritus due to liver diseases. Another example is the successful treatment of a chronic hiccup that developed after a surgery. No medication was effective, but smoking of a cannabis cigarette completely abolished the symptoms.

 

Cannabis products often show very good effects in diseases with multiple symptoms that encompassed within the spectrum of THC effects, for example, in painful conditions that have an inflammatory origin (e.g., arthritis), or are accompanied by increased muscle tone (e.g., menstrual cramps, spinal cord injury), or in diseases with nausea and anorexia accompanied by pain, anxiety and depression, respectively (e.g. AIDS, cancer, hepatitis C).

 

 

Alaska

 

Qualifying conditions include: 

 

     Cancer

     Glaucoma

     HIV/AIDS

     Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

     Pain

     Nausea

     Seizures

     Muscle spasms

     Multiple Sclerosis

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to Alaska's application for medical marijuana registry.

 

Arizona

 

Qualifying conditions include: 

 

     Cancer

     Glaucoma

     HIV/AIDS

     Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

     Pain

     Nausea

     Seizures

     Muscle spasms

     Multiple sclerosis

     PTSD

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to the Arizona state legislature concerning medical marijuana.

 

California

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Cancer

     Anorexia

     AIDS

     Chronic pain

     Spasticity

     Glaucoma

     Arthritis

     Migraines

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to California Proposition 215

 

Colorado

 

Although Colorado has implemented a legal recreational cannabis market, it still operates medical marijuana dispensaries for valid patients. Colorado MMJ patients still pay standard sales tax on cannabis but are exempt from the high excise taxes and additional state taxes collected from recreational cannabis sales.

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Cancer

     Glaucoma

     HIV/AIDS

     Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

     Persistent muscle spasms

     Seizures

     Severe nausea

     Severe pain

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to Colorado's Debilitating Conditions for Medical Marijuana Use

 

Connecticut

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Cancer

     Glaucoma

     HIV/AIDS

     Parkinson's disease

     Multiple sclerosis

     Damage to the nervous tissue of the spinal cord with objective neurological indication of intractable spasticity

     Epilepsy

     Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

     Wasting syndrome

     Crohn's disease

     Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to Connecticut's medical marijuana qualification requirements

 

Delaware

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Cancer

     HIV/AIDS

     Hepatitis C

     Lou Gehrig's disease (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS)

     Alzheimer's

     Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

     Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

     Intractable nausea

     Seizures

     Muscle spasms

     Multiple sclerosis

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to Delaware's medical marijuana program guidelines.

 

District of Columbia

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     HIV/AIDS

     Cancer

     Glaucoma

     Muscle spasms

     Multiple sclerosis

     Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

     Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

     Decompensated cirrhosis

     Alzheimer's Disease

     Seizure disorders

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to the District of Columbia's Medical Marijuana Program Patient FAQ.

 

Hawaii

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Cancer

     Glaucoma

     HIV/AIDS

     Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

     Pain

     Nausea

     Seizures

     Muscle spasms

     Multiple sclerosis

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to Hawaii Senate Bill 862.

 

Illinois

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Neurofibromatosis

     Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

     Sjogren's syndrome

     Lupus

     Interstitial cystitis

     Myasthenia gravis

     Hydrocephalus

     Nail-patella syndrome

     Cancer

     Glaucoma

     HIV/AIDS

     Hepatitis C

     Lou Gehrig's disease (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS)

     Crohn's disease

     Alzheimer's

     Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

     Muscular dystrophy

     Fibromyalgia

     Spinal cord disease and injury

     Multiple sclerosis

     Arnold-Chiari malformation & syringomyelia

     Ataxia

     Parkinson's disease

     Tourettes

     Myoclonus

     Dystonia

     Reflex sympathetic dystrophy

     Cardiopulmonary respiratory syndrome

     Causalgia

     Epilepsy

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to Illinois House Bill 0030.

 

Maine

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Chronic pain (which has not responded to conventional therapy for more than six months)

     Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

     Lou Gehrig's disease (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS)

     Alzheimer's disease

     Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

     Cancer

     Crohn's disease

     Glaucoma

     Hepatitis C (active form)

     HIV

     Inflammatory bowel disease (IBS)

     Seizure disorders

     Severe muscle spasms (including multiple sclerosis and other diseases causing severe and persistent muscle spasms)

     Severe nausea

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to Maine's medical use of marijuana guidelines

 

Maryland

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

     Severe, debilitating, or chronic pain

     Severe nausea

     Seizures, including those characteristic of epilepsy

     Severe and persistent muscle spasms

     Multiple sclerosis

     Crohn's disease

     Alzheimer's disease

     Cancer

     Glaucoma

     HIV/AIDS

     Hepatitis C

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to Maryland Senate Bill 757.

 

Massachusetts

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Cancer

     Glaucoma

     AIDS

     Hepatitis C

     Lou Gehrig's disease (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS)

     Crohn's disease

     Parkinson's disease

     Multiple sclerosis

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to the Massachusetts medical use of marijuana overview.

 

Michigan

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Cancer

     Glaucoma

     HIV/AIDS

     Hepatitis C

     Lou Gehrig's disease (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS)

     Alzheimer's 

     Nail-patella syndrome

     Cachexia (wasting disease)

     Severe and chronic pain

     Severe nausea

     Seizures

     Epilepsy

     Muscle spasms

     Multiple sclerosis

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to the Michigan Medical Marihuana Registry Program FAQ.

 

Montana

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Cancer

     Glaucoma

     HIV/AIDS

     Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

     Chronic pain

     Intractable nausea or vomiting

     Epilepsy or an intractable seizure disorder

     Multiple sclerosis

     Crohn's disease

     Painful peripheral neuropathy

     A central nervous system disorder resulting in chronic, painful spasticity or muscle spasms

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to Montana Code Annotated 2013.

 

Nevada

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     AIDS

     Cancer

     Glaucoma

     Condition or treatment for a medical condition that produces cachexia (general physical wasting and malnutrition)

     Persistent muscle spasms (including multiple sclerosis)

     Seizures (including epilepsy)

     Severe nausea

     Severe pain

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to the Nevada Medical Marijuana Program.

 

New Hampshire

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     A chronic or terminal disease

     Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

     Severe pain

     Severe nausea/vomiting

     Seizures

     Severe, persistent muscle spasms

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to New Hampshire House Bill 573.

 

New Jersey

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Lou Gehrig's disease (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS)

     Multiple sclerosis

     Terminal cancer

     Muscular dystrophy

     Inflammatory bowel disease (IBS)

     Crohn's disease

     Terminal illness if the physician has determined a prognosis of less than 12 months of life

     Seizure disorder, including epilepsy

     Intractable skeletal muscular spasticity

     Glaucoma

     HIV/AIDS 

     Cancer

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to the New Jersey Medicinal Marijuana Program.

 

New Mexico

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Severe chronic pain

     Painful peripheral neuropathy

     Intractable nausea/vomiting

     Severe anorexia

     Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

     Hepatitis C infection currently receiving antiviral treatment

     Crohn's disease

     Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

     Lou Gehrig's disease (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS)

     Cancer

     Glaucoma

     Multiple sclerosis

     Damage to the nervous tissue of the spinal cord with intractable spasticity

     Epilepsy

     HIV/AIDS

     Inflammatory autoimmune-mediated arthritis

     Hospice patients

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program FAQ.

 

Oregon

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Cancer

     Glaucoma

     AlzheimerÕs

     HIV/AIDS

     Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

     Severe pain

     Severe nausea

     Seizures, including but not limited to seizures caused by epilepsy

     Persistent muscle spasms

     Multiple sclerosis

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to the Oregon Medical Marijuana Act.

 

Rhode Island

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

               Cancer

               Glaucoma

               HIV/AIDS

               Hepatitis C

               Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

               Chronic pain

               Severe nausea

               Seizures, including but not limited to those characteristic of epilepsy

               Severe and persistent muscle spasms

               Multiple sclerosis

               Crohn's disease

               Alzheimer's

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to Rhode Island's medical marijuana approved qualifying debilitating medical conditions

 

Vermont

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

               Cancer

               AIDS/HIV

               Multiple sclerosis

               Cachexia (wasting syndrome)

               Severe pain

               Nausea

               Seizures

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to the Vermont patient marijuana registry FAQ.

 

Washington

 

Although Washington voters have passed Initiative 502, which will result in a legal recreational cannabis market, it will not debut until late spring/early summer 2014. Until that time, cannabis can still only be acquired by valid medical marijuana patients

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

               Cancer

               HIV/AIDS

               Multiple sclerosis

               Epilepsy or other seizure disorder

               Spasticity disorders

               Intractable pain

               Glaucoma

               Crohn's disease

               Hepatitis C

               Diseases, including anorexia, which result in nausea, vomiting, wasting, appetite loss, cramping, seizures, muscle spasms, or spasticity

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to the Washington state legislature regarding medical cannabis.

 

 

 

 

Alabama

 

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Debilitating epilepsy

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to SB174.

 

 

Florida

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

             Cancer

             Seizures

             Severe and persistent muscle spasms

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to SB1030.

 

 

 

 

Georgia

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

             Cancer

             Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

             Seizures

             Multiple Sclerosis

             Crohn's

             Mitochondrial disease

             Parkinsons

             Sickle Cell disease

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to HB1.

 

 

Idaho

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Cancer

     Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

     Seizure disorders,

     Multiple sclerosis,

     Crohn's disease,

     Mitochondrial disease,

     Fibroymyalgia,

     Parkinson's disease

     Sickle cell disease

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to SB1146.

 

 

Iowa

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Intractable epilepsy

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to SF 2360.

 

 

 

Kentucky

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     All conditions so long as the dispensing/referring  Dr. is associated with a stare university with a medical school or in connection with a clinical trial

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to SB124.

 

 

Mississippi

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Debilitating epileptic condition or related illness

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to HB1231.

 

 

Missouri

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Intractable epilepsy

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to H.B. 2338.

 

 

New York

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Cancer

     HIV

     Multiple sclerosis

     Epilepsy

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to New York's Medical Marijuana Program

 

 

North Carolina

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Intractable epilepsy

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to HB1220.

 

 

 

 

South Carolina

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Intractable epilepsy

 

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to S1035.

 

 

 

Tennessee

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Intractable epilepsy

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to SB2531.

 

 

Utah

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Epilepsy

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to HB105.

 

 

Virginia

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Intractable epilepsy

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to SB1235.

 

 

Wisconsin

 

Qualifying conditions include:

 

     Seizures

 

For a complete list of qualifying conditions and guidelines, please refer to SB685 AB726.

 

 

 

 

Studies

 

Nausea and Vomiting – Cancer Chemotherapy

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Artim R, DiBella N. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) plus prochlorperazine (PCZ) for refractory nausea and vomiting (N/V). Proceedings of the American Society for Clinical Oncology 1983;2:84.

        Chang AE, Shiling DJ, Stillman RC, Goldberg NH, Seipp CA, Barofsky I. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetics in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. Annals of Internal Medicine 1979;91:819-824.

o   Chang AE, Shiling DJ, Stillman RC, Goldberg NH, Seipp CA, Barofsky I, Rosenberg SA.. A prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy. Cancer 1981; 47: 1746-1751.

        Colls BM, Ferry DG, Gray AJ, Harvey VJ, McQueen EG. The antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. New Zealand Medical Journal 1980;91:449-451.

        Ekert H, Waters KD, Jurk KH, Mobilia J, Loughnan P. Ameriloration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Medical Journal of Australia 1979;2:657-659.

        Frytak S, Moertel CG, O'Fallon JR, Rubin J, Creagan ET, O'Connnell MJ. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetics for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo. Annals of Internal Medicine 1979;91:825-830.

        Gralla RJ, Tyson LB, Bordin LA, Clark RA, Kelsen DP, Kris MG. Antiemetic therapy: a review of recent studies and a report of a random assignment trial comparing metoclopramide with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Cancer Treatment Report 1984;68:163-172.

        Kluin-Nelemans JC, Nelemans FA, Meuwissen OJATh, Maes RAA. D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an antiemetic in patients treated with cancer chemotherapy; a double-blind cross-over trial against placebo. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 1979;21:338-340.

        Lane M, Vogel CL, Ferguson J, Krasnow S, Saiers JL, Hamm J. Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1991;6:352-359.

        Levitt M, Faiman C, Hawks R, Wilson A. Randomized double blind comparison of delta-9-tetrahydroicannabinol (THC) and marijuana as chemotherapy antiemetics. Proceedings of the American Society for Clinical Oncology 1984;3:91.

        Levitt M, Wilson A, Bowman D, Faiman C, Kemel S, Krepart G. Dose vs response of tetrahydroannabinol (THC) vs prochlorperazine as chemotherapy antiemetics. Proceedings of the American Society for Clinical Oncology 1981;22:422.

        McCabe M, Smith FP, Goldberg D, Macdonald J, Woolley PV, Warren R. Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy. Investigational New Drugs 1988;6:243-246.

        Neidhart JA, Gagen MM, Wilson HE, Young DC. Comparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 1981; 21: 38-42S.

        Orr LE, McKernan JF, Bloome B. Antiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol. Compared with placebo and prochlorperazine in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis. Archives of Internal Medicine 1980;140:1431-433.

        Sallan SE, Cronin C, Zelen M, Zinberg NE. Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer. A randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;302:135-138.

        Sallan SE, Zinberg NE, Frei E. Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. New England Journal of Medicine 1975;293:795-797.

        Ungerleider JT, Andrysiak T, Fairbanks L, Goodnight J, Sarna G, Jamison K. Cannabis and cancer chemotherapy. A comparison of oral delta-9-THC and prochlorperazine. Cancer 1982;50:636-645.

        Ungerleider JT, Sarna G, Fairbanks LA, Goodnight J, Andrysiak T, Jamison K. THC or compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patientthe UCLA study. Part II: patient drug preference. American Journal of Clinical Oncology 1985; 8: 142-147.

        Meiri E, Jhangiani H, Vredenburgh JJ, Barbato LM, Carter FJ, Yang HM, Baranowski V. Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination with ondansetron versus ondansetron alone for delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Curr Med Res Opin 2007;23(3):533-43.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Levitt M, Faiman C, Hawks R, Wilson A. Randomized double blind comparison of delta-9-tetrahydroicannabinol (THC) and marijuana as chemotherapy antiemetics. Proceedings of the American Society for Clinical Oncology 1984;3:91.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

        Duran M, PŽrez E, Abanades S, Vidal X, Saura C, Majem M, Arriola E, Rabanal M, Pastor A, FarrŽ M, Rams N, Laporte JR, Capellˆ D. Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010;70(5):656-63.

Nabilone

        Ahmedzai S, Carlyle DL, Clader IT, Moran F. Anti-emetic efficacy and toxicity of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in lung cancer chemotherapy. British Journal of Cancer 1983;48:657-663.

        Chan HS, Correia JA, MacLeod SM. Nabilone versus prochlorperazine for control of cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in children: a double-blind, crossover trial. Pediatrics 1987; 79: 946-952

        Crawford SM, Buckman R. Nabilone and metoclopramide in the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to cisplatinum: a double blind study. Medical Oncology and Tumor Pharmacotherapy 1986; 3: 39-42.

        Cunningham D, Bradley CJ, Forrest GJ, Hutcheon AW, Adams L, Sneddon M, et al. A randomized trial of oral nabilone and prochlorperazine compared to intravenous metoclopramide and dexamethasone in the treatment of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy regimens containing cisplatin or cisplatin analogues. European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology 1988; 24: 685-689.

        Dalzell AM, Bartlett H, Lilleyman JS. Nabilone: An alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1986;61:502-505.

        Einhorn LH, Nagy C, Furnas B, Williams SD. Nabilone: an effective antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1981 Aug-Sep;21(8-9 Suppl):64S-69S.

        George M, Pejovic MH, Thuaire M, Kramar A, Wolff JP. Randomized comparative trial of a new anti-emetic: nabilone, in cancer patients treated with cisplatin. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 1983; 37: 24-27.

        Herman TS, Einhorn LH, Jones SE, Nagy C, Chester AB, Dean JC, et al. Superiority of nabilone over prochlorperazine as an antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. New England Journal of Medicine 1979; 300: 1295-1297.

        Johansson R, Kilkku P, Groenroos M. A double-blind, controlled trial of nabilone vs prochlorperazine for refractory emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Treatment Reviews 1982; 9: 25-33.

        Jones SE, Durant JR, Greco FA, Robertone A. A multi-institutional phase III study of nabilone vs placebo in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Cancer Treatment Reviews 1982; 9: 45-48

        Levitt M. Nabilone vs placebo in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. Cancer Treatment Reviews 1982; 9(suppl B): 49-53.

        Nagy CM, Furnas BE, Einhorn LH, Bond WH. Nabilone: antiemetic crossover study in cancer chemotherapy patients. Proceedings of the American Society for Cancer Research 1978;19:30.

        Niederle N, Schutte J, Schmidt CG. Crossover comparison of the antiemetic efficacy of nabilone and alizapride in patients with nonseminomatous testicular cancer receiving cisplatin therapy. Klinische Wochenschrift 1986; 64: 362-365.

        Niiranen Aila, Mattson K. A cross-over comparison of nabilone and prochlorperazine for emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Oncology 1985;8:336-340.

        Pomeroy M, Fennelly JJ, Towers M. Prospective randomized double-blind trial of nabilone versus domperidone in the treatment of cytotoxic-induced emesis. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 1986;17:285-288.

        Priestman SG, Priestman TJ, Canney PA. A double-blind randomised cross-over comparison of nabilone and metoclopramide in the control of radiation-induced nausea. Clinical Radiology 1987; 38: 543-544.

        Steele N, Gralla RJ, Braun Jr DW, Young CW. Double-blind comparison of the antiemetic effects of nabilone and prochlorperazine on chemotherapy-induced emesis. Cancer Treatment Report 1980; 64: 219-224.

        Wada JK, Bogdon DL, Gunnell JC, Hum GJ, Gota CH, Rieth TE. Double-blind, randomized, crossover trial of nabilone vs. placebo in cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Treatment Reviews 1982; 9(Suppl B): 39-44

Levonantradol

        Citron ML, Herman TS, Vreeland F, Krasnow SH, Fossieck BE, Jr. Antiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Cancer Treatment Reports 1985;69:109-112.

        Higi M, Niederle N, Bremer K, Schmitt G, Schmidt CG, Seeber S. Levonantradol bei der Behandlung von zytostatika-bedingter Nausea and Vomiting. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 1982; 107: 1232-1234.

        Hutcheon AW, Palmer JB, Soukop M, Cunningham D, McArdle C, Welsh J, et al. A randomised multicentre single blind comparison of a cannabinoid anti-emetic (levonantradol) with ychlorpromazine in patients receiving their first cytotoxic chemotherapy. European Journal for Cancer and Clinical Oncology 1983; 19: 1087-1090

        Stambaugh Jr JE, McAdams J, Vreeland F. Dose ranging evaluation of the antiemetic efficacy and toxicity of intramuscular levonantradol in cancer subjects with chemotherapy-induced emesis. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research1984; 24: 480-485

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Delta-8-THC

        Abrahamov A, Abrahamov A, Mechoulam R. An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology. Life Sciences 1995;56:2097-2102.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Vinciguerra V, Moore T, Brennan E. Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy. New York State Journal of Medicine 1988;88:525-527.

        Musty RE, Rossi R. Effects of smoked cannabis and oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on nausea and emesis after cancer chemotherapy: A review of state clinical trials. J Cannabis Ther 2001;1(1):29-42.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

        Doblin RE, Kleiman MA. Marijuana as antiemetic medicine: a survey of oncologists' experiences and attitudes. American Journal of Clinical Oncology 1991; 9: 1314-1319.

o   Schwartz RH, Voth EA, Sheridan MJ. Marijuana to prevent nausea and vomiting in cancer patients: a survey of clinical oncologists. South Medical Journal 1997;90(2):167-72.

 

Nausea and Vomiting – Radiotherapy

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Ungerleider JT, Andrysiak TA, Fairbanks LA, Tesler AS, Parker RG. Tetrahydrocannabinol vs. prochlorperazine. The effects of two antiemetics on patients undergoing radiotherapy. Radiology 1984;150(2):598-9.

Levonantradol

        Lucraft HH, Palmer MK. Randomised clinical trial of levonantradol and chlorpromazine in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced vomiting. Clinical Radiology 1982; 33: 621-622.

 

Nausea and Vomiting – Metastases

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Zutt M, Hanssle H, Emmert S, Neumann C, Kretschmer L. [Dronabinol for supportive therapy in patients with malignant melanoma and liver metastases] [Article in German]. Hautarzt 2006;57(5):423-7.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Dronabinol

        Gonzalez-Rosales F, Walsh D. Intractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol). Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1997;14(5):311-314.

 

Nausea and Vomiting – Surgery

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Layeeque R, Siegel E, Kass R, Henry-Tillman RS, Colvert M, Mancino A, Klimberg VS. Prevention of nausea and vomiting following breast surgery. Am J Surg 2006;191(6):767-72.

Nabilone

        Lewis IH, Campbell DN, Barrowcliffe MP. Effect of nabilone on nausea and vomiting after total abdominal hysterectomy. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1994; 73: 244-246.

 

Nausea and Vomiting – HIV/AIDS

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis (smoked)

        de Jong BC, Prentiss D, McFarland W, Machekano R, Israelski DM. Marijuana use and its association with adherence to antiretroviral therapy among  HIV-infected persons with moderate to severe nausea. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005;38(1):43-6.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Woolridge E, Barton S, Samuel J, Osorio J, Dougherty A, Holdcroft A. Cannabis use in HIV for pain and other medical symptoms. J Pain Symptom Manage 2005;29(4):358-67.

        Sidney S. Marijuana use in HIV-positive and AIDS patients: Results of a an anonymous mail survey. J Cannabis Ther 2001;1(3-4):35-43.

        Corless IB, Lindgren T, Holzemer W, Robinson L, Moezzi S, Kirksey K, Coleman C, Tsai YF, Sanzero Eller L, Hamilton MJ, Sefcik EF, Canaval GE, Rivero Mendez M, Kemppainen JK, Bunch EH, Nicholas PK, Nokes KM, Dole P, Reynolds N. Marijuana Effectiveness as an HIV Self-Care Strategy. Clin Nurs Res 2009;18(2):172-93.

 

Nausea and Vomiting – Therapy of Hepatitis C

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol, Nabilone

        Costiniuk CT, Mills E, Cooper CL. Evaluation of oral cannabinoid-containing medications for the management of interferon and ribavirin-induced anorexia, nausea and weight loss in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C virus. Can J Gastroenterol 2008;22(4):376-80.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Sylvestre DL, Clements BJ, Malibu Y. Cannabis use improves retention and virological outcomes in patients treated for hepatitis C. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;18(10):1057-63.

 

Nausea and Vomiting – Pregnancy

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Curry W-NL. Hyperemesis gravidarum and clinical cannabis: To eat or not to eat? J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(3-4):63-83.

        Westfall RE, Janssen PA, Lucas P, Capler R. Survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against 'morning sickness'. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2006;12(1):27-33.

 

Nausea and Vomiting – Motion Sickness

Uncontrolled Studies

Parabolic Flight (no substance)

        Choukr A, Kaufmann I, Kreth S, Hauer D, Feuerecker M, Thieme D, Vogeser M, Thiel M, Schelling G.  Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.  PLoS One 2010;5(5):e10752.

 

Nausea and Vomiting – Other

Case Reports, Surveys

Dronabinol

        Merriman AR, Oliak DA. Use of medical marijuana for treatment of severe intractable nausea after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: case report. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2008;4(4):550-1.

 

Nausea and Vomiting – Healthy Subjects

Controlled Studies

Cannabis (smoked)

        Soderpalm AH, Schuster A, de Wit H. Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior  2001;69(3-4):343-50.

 

Appetite Loss – HIV/AIDS

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Beal JE, Olson R, Laubenstein L, Morales JP, Bellman P, Yangco B, Lefkowitz L, Plasse TF, Shepard KV. Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1995;10(2):89-97.

        Timpone JG, Wright DJ, Li N, Egorin MJ, Enama ME, Mayers J, Galetto G, and the DATRI 004 Study Group. The safety and pharmacokinetics of single-agent and combination therapy with megestrol acetate and dronabinol for the treatment of HIV wasting syndrome. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 1997;13:305-315.

        Abrams DI, Hilton JF, Leiser RJ, Shade SB, Elbeik TA, Aweeka FT, Benowitz NL, Bredt BM, Kosel B, Aberg JA, Deeks SG, Mitchell TF, Mulligan K, Bacchetti P, McCune JM, Schambelan M. Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med 2003;139(4):258-66.

        Haney M, Rabkin J, Gunderson E, Foltin RW. Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV(+) marijuana smokers: acute effects on caloric intake and mood. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005;181(1):170-8.

        Haney M, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, Comer SD, Foltin RW. Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers. Caloric intake, mood, and sleep. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007;45(5):545-54.

        Bedi G, Foltin RW, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Comer SD, Vosburg SK, Haney M. Efficacy and tolerability of high-dose dronabinol maintenance in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: a controlled laboratory study. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2010;212(4):675-86.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Haney M, Rabkin J, Gunderson E, Foltin RW. Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV(+) marijuana smokers: acute effects on caloric intake and mood. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005;181(1):170-8.

        Haney M, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, Comer SD, Foltin RW. Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers. Caloric intake, mood, and sleep. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007;45(5):545-54.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Gorter R, Seefried M, Volberding P. Dronabinol effects on weight in patients with HIV infection. AIDS 1992;6:127.

        Plasse TF, Gorter RW, Krasnow SH, Lane M, Shepard KV, Wadleigh RG. Recent clinical experience with dronabinol. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 1991;40:695-700.

        Plasse T, Conant M, Gorter R, Shepard KV. Dronabinol stimulates appetite and causes weight gain in HIV patients. International Conference on AIDS 1992;8(3):122 (abstract no. PuB 7442).

        Struwe M, Kaempfer SH, Geiger CJ, Pavia AT, Plasse TF, Shepard KV, Ries K, Evans TG. Effect of dronabinol on nutritional status in HIV infection. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 1993;27:827-831.

        Beal JE, Olson R, Lefkowitz L, Laubenstein L, Bellman P, Yangco B, Morales JO, Murphy R, Powderly W, Plasse TF, Mosdell KW, Shepard KV. Long-term efficacy and safety of dronabinol for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated anorexia. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1997;14(1):7-14.

        Dejesus E, Rodwick BM, Bowers D, Cohen CJ, Pearce D. Use of dronabinol improves appetite and reverses weight loss in HIV/AIDS-infected patients. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care 2007;6(2):95-100.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Prentiss D, Power R, Balmas G, Tzuang G, Israelski DM. Patterns of marijuana use among patients with HIV/AIDS followed in a public health care setting. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004;35(1):38-45.

        Woolridge E, Barton S, Samuel J, Osorio J, Dougherty A, Holdcroft A. Cannabis use in HIV for pain and other medical symptoms. J Pain Symptom Manage 2005;29(4):358-67.

        Sidney S. Marijuana use in HIV-positive and AIDS patients: Results of a an anonymous mail survey. J Cannabis Ther 2001;1(3-4):35-43.

        Corless IB, Lindgren T, Holzemer W, Robinson L, Moezzi S, Kirksey K, Coleman C, Tsai YF, Sanzero Eller L, Hamilton MJ, Sefcik EF, Canaval GE, Rivero Mendez M, Kemppainen JK, Bunch EH, Nicholas PK, Nokes KM, Dole P, Reynolds N. Marijuana Effectiveness as an HIV Self-Care Strategy. Clin Nurs Res 2009;18(2):172-93.

 

Appetite Loss – Cancer

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Jatoi A, Windschitl HE, Loprinzi CL, Sloan JA, Dakhil SR, Mailliard JA, Pundaleeka S, Kardinal CG, Fitch TR, Krook JE, Novotny PJ, Christensen B. Dronabinol versus megestrol acetate versus combination therapy for cancer-associated anorexia: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2002;20(2):567-573.

        Regelson W, Butler JR, Schulz J, Kirk T, Peek L, Green ML, Zalis MO. Delta-9-tetrahydro­cannabi­nol as an effective antidepressant and appetite-stimulating agent in ad­vanced cancer pa­tients. In: Braude MC, Szara S, editors. Pharmacology of mari­hu­ana. Vol 2. New York: Ra­ven Press, 1976. p. 763-776.

        Wadleigh R, Spaulding GM, Lumbersky B, Zimmer M, Shepard K, Plasse T. Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients. Proc Am Soc Oncology 1990; 9: 331.

o   Strasser F, Luftner D, Possinger K, Ernst G, Ruhstaller T, Meissner W, Ko YD, Schnelle M, Reif M, Cerny T. Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-in-Cachexia-Study-Group. J Clin Oncol 2006;24(21):3394-400.

        Brisbois TD, de Kock IH, Watanabe SM, Mirhosseini M, Lamoureux DC, Chasen M, Macdonald N, Baracos VE, Wismer WV. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may palliate altered chemosensory perception in cancer patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot  trial. Ann Oncol. 2011 Feb 22. [Epub ahead of print]

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

o   Strasser F, Luftner D, Possinger K, Ernst G, Ruhstaller T, Meissner W, Ko YD, Schnelle M, Reif M, Cerny T. Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-in-Cachexia-Study-Group. J Clin Oncol 2006;24(21):3394-400.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Plasse TF, Gorter RW, Krasnow SH, Lane M, Shepard KV, Wadleigh RG. Recent clinical experience with dronabinol. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 1991;40:695-700.

        Nelson K, Walsh D, Deeter P, Sheehan F. A phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia. Journal of Palliative Care 1994;10:14-18.

        Gottschling S. [Cannabinoids in children] [Article in German] Cannabinoide bei Kindern. Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin 2011;(1):55-57.

 

Appetite Loss – Alzheimer's Disease

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Volicer L, Stelly M, Morris J, McLaughlin J, Volicer BJ. Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 1997;12:913-919.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Patel S, Shua-Haim JR, Pass M. Safety and efficacy of dronabinol in the treatment of agitation in patients with AlzheimerÕs disease with anorexia: A retrospective chart review. Abstract, 11th International Conference of the IPA, 17-22 August 2003, Chicago.

 

Appetite Loss – Geriatrics

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Wilson MM, Philpot C, Morley JE. Anorexia of aging in long term care: is dronabinol an effective appetite stimulant? - a pilot study. J Nutr Health Aging 2007;11(2):195-8.

 

Appetite Loss - Anorexia nervosa

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

o   Gross H, Ebert MH, Faden VB, Goldberg SC, Kaye WH, Caine ED, Hawks R, Zinberg N. A double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1983;3(3):165-171.

 

Appetite Loss – COPD

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Bergmann K-C. [Dronabinol, a possible new therapeutic option in patients with COPD and pulmonal cachexia] [Article in German]. Abstract, 2005 Conference of the German Society for Pneumology, 17 March 2005, Berlin.

 

Appetite Loss – Healthy Subjects

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis (smoked)

        Morgan CJ, Freeman TP, Schafer GL, Curran HV. Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in  humans smoking their chosen cannabis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35(9):1879-85.

 

Controlled Studies

Cannabis (smoked)

        Foltin RW, Fishman MW, Brady JV. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 1986;25:577-582.

        Foltin RW, Fischman MW, Byrne MF. Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight of humans living in a residential laboratory. Appetite 1988;11(1):1-14.

 

Spasticity – Multiple Sclerosis

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

o   Killestein J, Hoogervorst EL, Reif M, Kalkers NF, Van Loenen AC, Staats PG, Gorter RW, Uitdehaag BM, Polman CH. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabinoids in MS. Neurology 2002;58(9):1404-7.

        Petro DJ, Ellenberger C. Treatment of human spasticity with D9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1981;(Suppl 21):413S-416S.

        Ungerleider JT, Andyrsiak T, Fairbanks L, Ellison GW, Myers LW. D9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse 1987;7:39-50.

        Zajicek J, Fox P, Sanders H, Wright D, Vickery J, Nunn A, Thompson A, on behalf of the UK MS Research Group. Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 362(9385): 1517-1526.

        Zajicek JP, Sanders HP, Wright DE, Vickery PJ, Ingram WM, Reilly SM, Nunn AJ, Teare LJ, Fox PJ, Thompson AJ. Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005;76(12):1664-9.

Nabilone

        Martyn CN, Illis LS, Thom J. Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Lancet 1995;345:579.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

        Vaney C, Heinzel-Gutenbrunner M, Jobin P, Tschopp F, Gattlen B, Hagen U, Schnelle M, Reif M. Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard antiemetic therapy.Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Multiple Sclerosis 2004;10(4):417-24.

        Wade DT, Makela P, Robson P, House H, Bateman C. Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients. Multiple Sclerosis 2004;10(4):434-41.

        Zajicek J, Fox P, Sanders H, Wright D, Vickery J, Nunn A, Thompson A, on behalf of the UK MS Research Group. Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 362(9385): 1517-1526.

        Zajicek JP, Sanders HP, Wright DE, Vickery PJ, Ingram WM, Reilly SM, Nunn AJ, Teare LJ, Fox PJ, Thompson AJ. Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005;76(12):1664-9.

        Wade DT, Makela PM, House H, Bateman C, Robson P. Long-term use of a cannabis-based medicine in the treatment of spasticity and other symptoms in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2006;12(5):639-45.

        Collin C, Ambler Z, Kent R, McCalla R. A randomised controlled study of Sativex¨ in patients with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. 22nd Congress of the ECTRIMS, 27-30 September 2006, Madrid, Spain.

        Collin C, Davies P, Mutiboko IK, Ratcliffe S, for the Sativex Spasticity in MS Study Group. Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurology 2007;14(3):290–296.

        Conte A, Bettolo CM, Onesti E, Frasca V, Iacovelli E, Gilio F, Giacomelli E, Gabriele M, Aragona M, Tomassini V, Pantano P, Pozzilli C, Inghilleri M. Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Eur J Pain 2009;13(5):472-7.

o   Centonze D, Mori F, Koch G, Buttari F, Codecˆ C, Rossi S, Cencioni MT, Bari M, Fiore S, Bernardi G, Battistini L, Maccarrone M. Lack of effect of cannabis-based treatment on clinical and laboratory measures in multiple sclerosis. Neurol Sci 2009;30(6):531-4.

        Novotna A, Mares J, Ratcliffe S, Novakova I, Vachova M, Zapletalova O, Gasperini C, Pozzilli C, Cefaro L, Comi G, Rossi P, Ambler Z, Stelmasiak Z, Erdmann A, Montalban X, Klimek A, Davies P; the Sativex Spasticity Study Group. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, enriched-design study of nabiximols* (Sativex(¨) ), as add-on therapy, in subjects with refractory spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol 2011;18(9):1122-1131.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Meinck HM, Schšnle PWA, Conrad B. Effect of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology 1989;236:120-122.

v  Greenberg HS, Werness SAS, Pugh JE, Andrus RO, Anderson DJ, Domino EF. Short-term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1994;55:324-328.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Dronabinol

        Deutsch SI, Rosse RB, Connor JM, Burket JA, Murphy ME, Fox FJ. Current status of cannabis treatment of multiple sclerosis with an illustrative case presentation of a patient with MS, complex vocal tics, paroxysmal dystonia, and marijuana dependence treated with dronabinol. CNS Spectr 2008;13(5):393-403.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Consroe P, Musty R, Rein J, Tillery W, Pertwee R. The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis. European Neurology 1997;38:44-48.

        Page SA, Verhoef MJ, Stebbins RA, Metz LM, Levy JC. Cannabis use as described by people with multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci 2003;30(3):201-5.

        Chong MS, Wolff K, Wise K, Tanton C, Winstock A, Silber E. Cannabis use in patients with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2006;12(5):646-51.

        Hodges C. Personal account of medical use of cannabis. J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(3-4):155-60.

 

Spasticity – Spinal Cord Injury

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Hanigan WC, Destree R, Truong XT. The effect of D9-THC on human spasticity. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1986;39:198.

        Maurer M, Henn V, Dittrich A, Hofmann A. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1990;240:1-4.

        Hagenbach U, Luz S, Ghafoor N, Berger JM, Grotenhermen F, Brenneisen R, MŠder M. The treatment of spasticity with Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2007;45(8):551-62.

 

Controlled Studies

Nabilone

        Pooyania S, Ethans K, Szturm T, Casey A, Perry D. A randomized, double-blinded, crossover pilot study assessing the effect of nabilone on spasticity in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91(5):703-7.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Kogel RW, Johnson PB, Chintam R, Robinson CJ, Nemchausky BA. Treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury with dronabinol, a tetrahydrocannabinol derivative. American Journal of Therapeutics 1995;2(10):799-805.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Malec J, Harvey RF, Cayner JJ. Cannabis effect on spasticity in spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1982;63:116-118.

        Consroe P, Tillery W, Rein J, Musty RE. Reported Marijuana effects in patients with spinal cord injury. 1998 Symposium on the Cannabinoids. Burlington: International Cannabinoid Research Society, 1998, p. 64.

        Dunn M, Davis R. The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males. Paraplegia 1974;12:175.

 

Spasticity – Different Causes

Controlled Studies

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

        Wade DT, Robson P, House H, Makela P, Aram J. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clinical Rehabilition 2003;17:18-26.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Brenneisen R, Egli A, Elsohly MA, Henn V, Spiess Y. The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1996;34:446-452.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Dronabinol

        Lorenz R. A casuistic rationale for the treatment of spastic and myocloni in a childhood neurodegenerative disease: neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis of the type Jansky-Bielschowsky. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2002;23(5-6):387-90.

        Gottschling S. [Cannabinoids in children] [Article in German] Cannabinoide bei Kindern. Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin 2011;(1):55-57.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Petro DJ. Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity. Psychosomatics 1980;21:81-85.

        Randall RC, ed. Muscle Spasm, Pain & Marijuana Therapy. Washington, DC: Galen Press, 1991.

        Schweizer A, Bircher HP. Reposition of a dislocated shoulder under use of cannabis. Wilderness Environ Med 2009;20(3):301-2.

 

Pain – Chronic, Neuropathic/Multiple Sclerosis

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Brenneisen R, Egli A, Elsohly MA, Henn V, Spiess Y. The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1996;34:446-452.

        Maurer M, Henn V, Dittrich A, Hofmann A. Delta-9-THC shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double blind trial. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1990;240:1-4.

        Wade DT, Robson P, House H, Makela P, Aram J. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clinical Rehabilitation 2003;17:18-26.

        Berman JS, Symonds C, Birch R. Efficacy of two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial. Pain 2004;112(3):299-306.

        Svendsen KB, Jensen TS, Bach FW. Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial. BMJ 2004;329(7460):253.

o   Rintala DH, Fiess RN, Tan G, Holmes SA, Bruel BM. Effect of dronabinol on central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: a pilot study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2010;89(10):840-8.

Nabilone

        Wissel J, Haydn T, MŸller J, Brenneis C, Berger T, Poewe W, Schelosky LD. Low dose treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid Nabilone significantly reduces  spasticity-related pain : a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial. J Neurol 2006;253(10):1337-41.

o   Frank B, Serpell MG, Hughes J, Matthews JN, Kapur D. Comparison of analgesic effects and patient tolerability of nabilone and dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain: randomised, crossover, double blind  study. BMJ 2008;336(7637):199-201.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

        Wade DT, Robson P, House H, Makela P, Aram J. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clinical Rehabilitation 2003;17:18-26.

        Berman J, Lee J, Cooper M, Cannon A, Sach J, McKerral S, Taggart M, Symonds C, Fishel K, Birch R. Efficacy of two cannabis-based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial. Anaesthesia, 2003;58:938.

        Rog DJ, Nurmikko TJ, Friede T, Young CA. Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2005;65(6):812-9.

o   Ernst G, Denke C, Reif M, Schnelle M, Hagmeister H. Standardized cannabis extract in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study. IACM 3rd Conference on Cannabinoids in Medicine, 9-10 September 2005, Leiden, International Association for Cannabis as Medicine.

        Nurmikko TJ, Serpell MG, Hoggart B, Toomey PJ, Morlion BJ, Haines D. Sativex successfully treats neuropathic pain characterised by allodynia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pain 2007;133(1-3):210-20.

        Selvarajah D, Gandhi R, Emery CJ, Tesfaye S. Randomised Placebo Controlled Double Blind Clinical Trial of Cannabis Based Medicinal Product (Sativex) in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: Depression is a Major Confounding Factor. Diabetes Care 2010;33(1):128-30.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Abrams DI, Jay CA, Shade SB, Vizoso H, Reda H, Press S, Kelly ME, Rowbotham MC, Petersen KL. Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 2007;68(7):515-21.

        Wilsey B, Marcotte T, Tsodikov A, Millman J, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Fishman S. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of cannabis cigarettes in neuropathic pain. J Pain 2008;9(6):506-21.

        Ellis RJ, Toperoff W, Vaida F, van den Brande G, Gonzales J, Gouaux B, Bentley H, Atkinson JH. Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 2009;34(3):672-680.

        Ware MA, Wang T, Shapiro S, Robinson A, Ducruet T, Huynh T, Gamsa A, Bennett GJ,  Collet JP. Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ 2010;182(14):E694-701.

Cannabidiol

o   Lindstrom P, Lindblom U, Boreus L. Lack of effect of cannabidiol in sustained neuropathia. Paper presented at '87 International Conference on Cannabis, Melbourne, September 2-4, 1987. Cited from: Consroe P, Sandyk R. Potential role of cannabinoids for therapy of neurological disorders. In: Murphy L, Bartke A, eds. Marijuana/Cannabinoids. Neurobiology and Neurophysiology. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 1992:459-524.

CT-3 (Ajulemic Acid)

        Karst M, Salim K, Burstein S, Conrad I, Hoy L, Schneider U. Analgesic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid CT-3 on chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;290(13):1757-62.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

o   Clermont-Gnamien S, Atlani S, Attal N, Le Mercier F, Guirimand F, Brasseur L. [The therapeutic use of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) in refractory neuropathic pain] [Article in French] Presse Med 2002;31(39 Pt 1):1840-5.

        Finnegan-Ling D, Musty RE. Marinol and phantom limb pain; a case study. In: 1994 Symposium on the Cannabinoids. Burlington, Vermont: International Cannabinoid Research Society, p. 53.

o   Attal N, Brasseur L, Guirimand D, Clermond-Gnamien S, Atlami S, Bouhassira D. Are oral cannabinoids safe and effective in refractory neuropathic pain? Eur J Pain 2004;8:173–177.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

        Rog DJ, Nurmikko TJ, Young CA. Oromucosal delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: an uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial. Clin Ther 2007;29(9):2068-79.

Nabilone (oral)

        Toth C, Au S. A prospective identification of neuropathic pain in specific chronic polyneuropathy syndromes and response to pharmacological therapy. Pain 2008;138(3):657-66.

        Bestard JA, Toth CC. An Open-Label Comparison of Nabilone and Gabapentin as Adjuvant Therapy or Monotherapy in the Management of Neuropathic Pain in Patients with Peripheral Neuropathy. Pain Pract 2011;11(4):353-68.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Dunn M, Davis R. The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males. Paraplegia 1974;12:175.

        Consroe P, Musty R, Rein J, Tillery W, Pertwee R. The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis. European Neurology 1997;38:44-48.

        Petro DJ. Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity. Psychosomatics 1980;21:81-85.

        Page SA, Verhoef MJ, Stebbins RA, Metz LM, Levy JC. Cannabis use as described by people with multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci 2003;30(3):201-5.

        Prentiss D, Power R, Balmas G, Tzuang G, Israelski DM. Patterns of marijuana use among patients with HIV/AIDS followed in a public health care setting. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004;35(1):38-45.

        Woolridge E, Barton S, Samuel J, Osorio J, Dougherty A, Holdcroft A. Cannabis use in HIV for pain and other medical symptoms. J Pain Symptom Manage 2005;29(4):358-67.

        Chong MS, Wolff K, Wise K, Tanton C, Winstock A, Silber E. Cannabis use in patients with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2006;12(5):646-51.

 

Pain – Chronic, Cancer

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Noyes R, Brunk SF, Baram DA, Canter A. Analgesic effects of delta-9-THC. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1975;15:139-143.

        Noyes R, Brunk ST, Avery DH, Canter A. The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1975;18:84-89.

o   Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT. Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 2010;39(2):167-79.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

        Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT. Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 2010;39(2):167-79.

 

Benzopyranoperidine

o   Jochimsen PR, Lawton RL, VerSteeg K, Noyes Jr R. Effect of benzopyranoperidine, a delta-9-THC congener, on pain. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1978;24:223-7.

NIB

        Staquet M, Gantt C, Machin D. Effect of a nitrogen analog of tetrahydrocannabinol on cancer pain. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1978;23:397-401.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Butler JR  Peek LA  Regelson W  Moore MM  Lubin LA. Treatment effects of delta-9-THC in an advanced cancer population. In: Cohen S, Stillman RC, eds. The therapeutic potential of marihuana. Plenum Medical Book, New York 1976.

Nabilone

        Maida V. The synthetic cannabinoid nabilone improves pain and symptom management in cancer patients. Abstract of San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, 15 December 2006.

        Maida V, Ennis M, Irani S, Corbo M, Dolzhykov M. Adjunctive nabilone in cancer pain and symptom management: a prospective observational study using propensity scoring. J Support Oncol 2008;6(3):119-24.

 

Pain – Rheumatic

Controlled Studies

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

        Blake DR, Robson P, Ho M, Jubb RW, McCabe CS. Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2006;45(1):50-2.

 

Pain - Fibromyalgia

Controlled Studies

Nabilone

        Skrabek RQ, Galimova L, Ethans K, Perry D. Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia. J Pain 2008;9(2):164-73.

        Ware MA, Fitzcharles MA, Joseph L, Shir Y. The effects of nabilone on sleep in fibromyalgia: results of a randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg 2010;110(2):604-10.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Schley M, Legler A, Skopp G, Schmelz M, Konrad C, Rukwied R. Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief. Curr Med Res Opin 2006;22(7):1269-1276.

        Fiz J, Dur‡n M, Capellˆ D, Carbonell J, FarrŽ M. Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life. PLoS One 2011;6(4):e18440.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Fiz J, Duran M, Langohr K, Capellˆ D, FarrŽ M. Symptoms relief and improved mental health in fibromyalgia patients using cannabis. Results of an observational study. IACM 4th Conference on Cannabinoids in Medicine, 5-6 October 2007, Cologne, International Association for Cannabis as Medicine.

 

Pain – Chronic

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Notcutt W, Price M, Miller R, Newport S, Phillips C, Simmons S, Sansom C. Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 'N of 1' studies. Anaesthesia 2004;59(5):440-52.

        Narang S, Gibson D, Wasan AD, Ross EL, Michna E, Nedeljkovic SS, Jamison RN. Efficacy of dronabinol as an adjuvant treatment for chronic pain patients on opioid therapy. J Pain 2008;9(3):254-64.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

        Holdcroft A, Smith M, Jacklin A, Hodgson H, Smith B, Newton M, Evans F. Pain relief with oral cannabinoids in familial Mediterranean fever. Anaesthesia 1997;52:483-488.

        Notcutt W, Price M, Miller R, Newport S, Phillips C, Simmons S, Sansom C. Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 'N of 1' studies. Anaesthesia 2004;59(5):440-52.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Ware MA, Ducruet T, Robinson AR. Evaluation of herbal cannabis characteristics by medical users: a randomized trial. Harm Reduct J 2006;3(1):32

Nabilone

        Pinsger M, Schimetta W, Volc D, Hiermann E, Riederer F, Polz W. [Benefits of an add-on treatment with the synthetic cannabinomimetic nabilone on patients with chronic pain - a randomized controlled trial.] [Article in German] Wien Klin Wochenschr 2006;118(11-12):327-35.

N-palmitoylethanolamine (topical)

        Phan NQ, Siepmann D, Gralow I, StŠnder S. Adjuvant topical therapy with a cannabinoid receptor agonist in facial postherpetic neuralgia. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2010;8(2):88-91.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

        Haroutiunian S, Rosen G, Shouval R, Davidson E. Open-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 2008;22(3):213-7.

Nabilone

        Hamann W, di Vadi PP. Analgesic effect of the cannabinoid analogue nabilone is not mediated by opioid receptors. Lancet 1999;353(9152):560.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Dronabinol

        Elsner F, Radbruch L, Sabatowski R. [Tetrahydrocannabinol for treatment of chronic pain] [Article in German]. Pain 2001;15(3):200-4.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Noyes R, Baram DA. Cannabis analgesia. Comprehensive Psychiatry 1974:15:531-535.

        Ware MA, Doyle CR, Woods R, Lynch ME, Clark AJ. Cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain: results of a prospective survey. Pain 2003;102(1-2):211-216.

        Lynch ME, Clark AJ. Cannabis reduces opioid dose in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 2003;25(6):496-8.

        Howard J, Anie KA, Holdcroft A, Korn S, Davies SC. Cannabis use in sickle cell disease: a questionnaire study. Br J Haematol 2005;131(1):123-8.

        Russo EB, Mathre ML, Byrne A, Velin R, Bach PJ, Sanchez-Ramos J, et al. Chronic cannabis use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An examination of benefits and adverse effects of legal clinical cannabis. J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(1):3-57.

        Aggarwal SK, Carter GT, Sullivan MD, ZumBrunnen C, Morrill R, Mayer JD. Characteristics of patients with chronic pain accessing treatment with medical cannabis in Washington State. J Opioid Manag 2009;5(5):257-86.

 

Pain – Acute, Surgery

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

o   Raft D, Gregg J, Ghia J, Harris L. Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain: psychological correlates of the analgesic response. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1977;21:26-33.

o   Buggy DJ, Toogood L, Maric S, Sharpe P, Lambert DG, Rowbotham DJ. Lack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain. Pain 2003;106(1-2):169-72.

o   Seeling W, Kneer L, Buchele B, Gschwend JE, Maier L, Nett C, Simmet T, Steffen P, Schneider M, Rockemann M. [(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and the opioid receptor agonist piritramide do not act synergistically in postoperative pain.] [Article in German]. Anaesthesist 2006;55(4):391-400.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

        Holdcroft A, Maze M, Dore C, Tebbs S, Thompson S. A multicenter dose-escalation study of the analgesic and adverse effects of an oral cannabis extract (Cannador) for postoperative pain management. Anesthesiology 2006;104(5):1040-1046.

Nabilone

o   Beaulieu P. Effects of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, on postoperative pain. Can J Anaesth 2006;53(8):769-75.

Levonantradol

        Jain AK, Ryan JR, McMahon FG, Smith G. Evaluation of intramuscular levonantradol and placebo in acute postoperative pain. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1981;21(suppl 8-9):S320-S326.

        Kantor TG, Hopper M. A study of levonantradol, a cannabinol derivative, for analgesia in post operative pain. Pain 1981; (suppl): S37.

GW842166

        Ostenfeld T, Price J, Albanese M, Bullman J, Guillard F, Meyer I, Leeson R, Costantin C, Ziviani L, Nocini PF, Milleri S. A randomized, controlled study to investigate the analgesic efficacy of single doses of the cannabinoid receptor-2 agonist GW842166, ibuprofen or placebo in patients with acute pain following third molar tooth extraction. Clin J Pain 2011;27(8):668-76.

 

Pain – Acute, Healthy Subjects

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

o   Naef M, Curatolo M, Petersen-Felix S, Arendt-Nielsen L, Zbinden A, Brenneisen R. The analgesic effect of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, and a THC-morphine combination in healthy subjects under experimental pain conditions. Pain 2003;105(1-2):79-88.

        Roberts JD, Gennings C, Shih M. Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine. Eur J Pharmacol 2006;530(1-2):54-8.

Nabilone

o   Redmond WJ, Goffaux P, Potvin S, Marchand S.  Analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of nabilone on experimental heat pain.  Curr Med Res Opin 2008;24(4):1017-24.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Greenwald MK, Stitzer ML Antinociceptive, subjective and behavioral effects of smoked marijuana in humans. Drug Alcohol Depend 2000;59(3):261-75.

        Wallace M, Schulteis G, Atkinson JH, Wolfson T, Lazzaretto D, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Abramson I. Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology 2007;107(5):785-796.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

o   Kraft B, Frickey NA, Kaufmann RM, Reif M, Frey R, Gustorff B, Kress HG. Lack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers. Anesthesiology 2008;109(1):101-10.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis (smoked)

o   Hill SY, Schwin R, Goodwin DW, Powell B. Marihuana and pain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1974;188:415-8.

o   Clark WC, Janal MN, Zeidenberg P, Nahas GG. Effects of moderate and high doses of marihuana on thermal pain: a sensory decision theory analysis. J Clin Pharmacol 1981;21(8-9 Suppl):299S-310S.

 

Headache/Migraine

Case Reports, Surveys

Dronabinol

        Raby WN, Modica PA, Wolintz RJ, Murtaugh K. Dronabinol reduces signs and symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a case report. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2006;22(1):68-75.

        Robbins MS, Tarshish S, Solomon S, Grosberg BM. Cluster Attacks Responsive to Recreational Cannabis and Dronabinol. Headache 2009;49(6):914-6.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Raby WN, Modica PA, Wolintz RJ, Murtaugh K. Dronabinol reduces signs and symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a case report. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2006;22(1):68-75.

        Robbins MS, Tarshish S, Solomon S, Grosberg BM. Cluster Attacks Responsive to Recreational Cannabis and Dronabinol. Headache 2009;49(6):914-6.

Cannabis (historical)

        Russo EB. Hemp for headache: An in-depth historical and scientific review of cannabis in migraine treatment. J Cannabis Ther 2001;1(2):21-92.

 

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

o   Weber M, Goldman B, Truniger S. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind crossover trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010;81(10):1135-40.

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Amtmann D, Weydt P, Johnson KL, Jensen MP, Carter GT. Survey of cannabis use in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2004;21(2):95-104.

 

Bladder Dysfunction

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Hagenbach U, Ghafoor N, Brenneisen R, Luz S, MŠder M. Clinical investigation of D-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an alternative therapy for overactive bladders in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients? Abstract, 2001 Congress on Cannabis and the Cannabinoids, International Association for Cannabis as Medicine, 25-27 October 2001, Cologne, Germany.

        Freeman RM, Adekanmi O, Waterfield MR, Waterfield AE, Wright D, Zajicek J. The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis:  a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS). Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2006;17(6):636-41.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

        Brady CM, DasGupta R, Dalton C, Wiseman OJ, Berkley KJ, Fowler CJ. An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 2004;10(4):425-33.

        de Ridder D, Constantinescu CS,Fowler C, Kavia R, Sarantis N. Randomised controlled study of cannabis-based medicine (Sativex¨) in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis associated detrusor overactivity. 22nd Congress of the ECTRIMS, 27-30 September 2006, Madrid, Spain.

        Freeman RM, Adekanmi O, Waterfield MR, Waterfield AE, Wright D, Zajicek J. The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis:  a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS). Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2006;17(6):636-41.

        Kavia RB, De Ridder D, Constantinescu CS, Stott CG, Fowler CJ. Randomized controlled trial of Sativex to treat detrusor overactivity in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2010;16(11):1349-59.

 

Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux

Controlled Studies (Experimental in Healthy Subjects)

Dronabinol

        Beaumont H, Jensen J, Carlsson A, Ruth M, Lehmann A, Boeckxstaens GE. Effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans. Br J Pharmacol 2009;156(1):153-62.

 

Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Diarrhoea

Controlled Studies (Experimental in Healthy Subjects)

Dronabinol

        Esfandyari T, Camilleri M, Busciglio I, Burton D, Baxter K, Zinsmeister AR. Effects of a cannabinoid receptor agonist on colonic motor and sensory functions  in humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2007;293(1):G137-45.

o   Klooker TK, Leliefeld KE, Van Den Wijngaard RM, Boeckxstaens GE. The cannabinoid receptor agonist delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol does not affect visceral sensitivity to rectal distension in healthy volunteers and IBS patients. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2011;23(1):30-5, e2.

        Wong BS, Camilleri M, Busciglio I, Carlson P, Szarka LA, Burton D, Zinsmeister AR. Pharmacogenetic Trial of a Cannabinoid Agonist Shows Reduced Fasting Colonic Motility in Patients with Non-Constipated Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterology, 28. Juli 2011 [im Druck]

 

Crohn's Disease

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis

        Lal S, Prasad N, Ryan M, Tangri S, Silverberg MS, Gordon A, Steinhart H. Cannabis use amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;23(10):891-6.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis

        Naftali T, Lev LB, Yablekovitz D, Half E, Konikoff FM. Treatment of Crohn's disease with cannabis: an observational study. Isr Med Assoc J 2011;13(8):455-8.

 

Ulcerative Colitis

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis

        Lal S, Prasad N, Ryan M, Tangri S, Silverberg MS, Gordon A, Steinhart H. Cannabis use amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;23(10):891-6.

 

Obstetrics and Gynecology

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (historical)

        Russo E. Cannabis treatments in obstetrics and gynecology: A historical review. J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(3-4):5-35.

 

Tremor

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Clifford DB. Tetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis. Annals of Neurology 1983;13:669-671.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

o   Fox P, Bain PG, Glickman S, Carroll C, Zajicek J. The effect of cannabis on tremor in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2004;62(7):1105-9.

 

Dystonia

Uncontrolled Studies

Nabilone

o   Fox SH, Kellett M, Moore AP, Crossman AR, Brotchie JM. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the potential of cannabinoid receptor stimulation in the treatment of dystonia. Movement Disorders 2002;17(1):145-149.

Cannabidiol

        Snider SR, Consroe P. Treatment of Meige's syndrome with cannabidiol. Neurology 1984;34(Suppl):147.

        Sandyk R, Snider SR, Consroe P, Elias SM. Cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders. Psychiatry Research 1986;18:291.

        Consroe P, Sandyk R, Snider SR. Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders. International Journal of Neuroscience 1986;30:277-282.

 

L-Dopa-induced Dyskinesia (Tardive Dyskinesia)

Controlled Studies

Nabilone

        Sieradzan KA, Fox SH, Dick J, Brotchie JM. The effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist nabilone on L-DOPA induced dyskinesia in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Movement Disorders 1998;13(Suppl 2):29.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Beckmann Y, Seil Y, GŸngšr B, Yiğit T. Tardive Dystonia and the Use of Cannabis. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 2010;21(1):90-91.

Dronabinol

        Beckmann Y, Seil Y, GŸngšr B, Yiğit T. Tardive Dystonia and the Use of Cannabis. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 2010;21(1):90-91.

 

 

Hiccups (Singultus)

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Gilson I, Busalacchi M. Marijuana for intractable hiccups. Lancet 1998; 351(9098): 267.

 

Tourette's Syndrome, Tics

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        MŸller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Koblenz A, Jobges M, Kolbe H, Daldrup T, Emrich HM. Treatment of Tourette's syndrome with Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): a randomized crossover trial. Pharmacopsychiatry  2002;35(2):57-61.

        MŸller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Prevedel H, Theloe K, Kolbe H, Daldrup T, Emrich HM. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2003;64(4):459-65.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        MŸller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Kolbe H, Emrich HM. Treatment of Tourette-Syndrome with delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. American Journal of Psychiatry 1999;156:495.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Dronabinol

        Deutsch SI, Rosse RB, Connor JM, Burket JA, Murphy ME, Fox FJ. Current status of cannabis treatment of multiple sclerosis with an illustrative case presentation of a patient with MS, complex vocal tics, paroxysmal dystonia, and marijuana dependence treated with dronabinol. CNS Spectr 2008;13(5):393-403.

        MŸller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Emrich HM. Combined treatment of Tourette syndrome with delta-9-THC and dopamine receptor agonists. J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(3-4):145-54.

        Hasan A, Rothenberger A, MŸnchau A, Wobrock T, Falkai P, Roessner V. Oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory gilles de la tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2010;30(2):190-2.

        Brunnauer A, Segmiller FM, Volkamer T, Laux G, MŸller N, Dehning S. Cannabinoids improve driving ability in a Tourette's patient. Psychiatry Res, 9 June 2011 [im Druck]

Cannabis (smoked)

        MŸller-Vahl KR, Kolbe H, Schneider U, Emrich HM. Cannabinoids: Possible role in pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette-syndrome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1998;97:1-5.

        Sandyk R, Awerbuch G. Marijuana and Tourette's Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1988;8:444-445.

        Hemming M, Yellowlees PM. Effective treatment of Tourette's syndrome with marijuana. J Psychopharmacol 1993; 7: 389-91.

 

Hyperkinetic Movement Disorder

Case Reports, Survey

Dronabinol

        Farooq MU, Ducommun E, Goudreau J. Treatment of a hyperkinetic movement disorder during pregnancy with dronabinol. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2009;15(3):249-51.

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis (smoked)

        Aharonovich E, Garawi F, Bisaga A, Brooks D, Raby WN, Rubin E, Nunes EV, Levin FR. Concurrent cannabis use during treatment for comorbid ADHD and cocaine dependence: effects on outcome. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2006;32(4):629-35.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Dronabinol

        Strohbeck-Kuehner P, Skopp G, Mattern R. [Fitness to drive in spite (because) of THC] [Article in German]. Arch Kriminol 2007;220(1-2):11-9.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Strohbeck-Kuehner P, Skopp G, Mattern R. [Fitness to drive in spite (because) of THC] [Article in German]. Arch Kriminol 2007;220(1-2):11-9.

        O'Connell TJ, Bou-Matar CB. Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001-2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of  4117 applicants. Harm Reduct J 2007;4:16.

 

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Case Reports, Surveys

Dronabinol, Cannabis (smoked)

        Schindler F, Anghelescu I, Regen F, Jockers-Scherubl M. Improvement in refractory obsessive compulsive disorder with dronabinol. Am J Psychiatry 2008;165(4):536-7.

 

Trichotillomania

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Grant JE, Odlaug BL, Chamberlain SR, Kim SW. Dronabinol, a cannabinoid agonist, reduces hair pulling in trichotillomania: a pilot study. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 19 May 2011 [im Druck]

 

Parkinson's Disease

Controlled Studies

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

o   Carroll CB, Bain PG, Teare L, Liu X, Joint C, Wroath C, Parkin SG, Fox P, Wright  D, Hobart J, Zajicek JP. Cannabis for dyskinesia in Parkinson disease: a randomized double-blind crossover study. Neurology 2004;63(7):1245-50.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis (smoked)

o   Frankel JP, Hughes A, Lees AJ, Stern GM. Marijuana for Parkinsonian tremor. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1990;53:436.

 

Huntington's Disease

Controlled Studies

Cannabidiol

o   Consroe P, Laguna J, Allender J, Snider S, Stern L, Sandyk R, Kennedy K, Schram K. Controlled clincal trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 1991;40(3):701-8.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Nabilone

v  MŸller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Emrich HM. Nabilone deteriorates choreatic movements in Huntington`s disease. Movement Disorders 1999b;14:1038-40.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Dronabinol/Cannabis (smoked)

        Beckmann Y, Seil Y, GŸngšr B, Yiğit T. Tardive Dystonia and the Use of Cannabis.Turk Psikiyatri Derg 2010;21(1):90-91.

 

Traumatic Brain Injury

Controlled Studies

Dexanabinol

o   Maas AI, Murray G, Henney H 3rd, Kassem N, Legrand V, Mangelus M, Muizelaar JP, Stocchetti N, Knoller N; Pharmos TBI investigators. Efficacy and safety of dexanabinol in severe traumatic brain injury: results of a phase III randomised, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Lancet Neurol 2006;5(1):38-45.

 

Tinnitus

Case Reports, Surveys

Dronabinol/Cannabis (smoked)

        Raby WN, Modica PA, Wolintz RJ, Murtaugh K. Dronabinol reduces signs and symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a case report. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2006;22(1):68-75.

 

Pruritus

Uncontrolled Studies

Cream with Endocannabinoids

        Szepietowski JC, Szepietowski T, Reich A. Efficacy and tolerance of the cream containing structured physiological lipids with endocannabinoids in the treatment of uremic pruritus: a preliminary study. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2005;13(2):97-103.

        StŠnder S, Reinhardt HW, Luger TA. [Topical cannabinoid agonists: An effective new possibility for treating chronic pruritus.] [Article in German]. Hautarzt 2006;57(9):801-7.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Dronabinol

        Neff GW, O'Brien CB, Reddy KR, Bergasa NV, Regev A, Molina E, Amaro R, Rodriguez  MJ, Chase V, Jeffers L, Schiff E. Preliminary observation with dronabinol in patients with intractable pruritus secondary to cholestatic liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97(8):2117-9.

 

Night Sweats

Uncontrolled Studies

Nabilone

        Maida V. Nabilone for the treatment of paraneoplastic night sweats: a report of four cases. J Palliat Med 2008;11(6):929-34.

 

Epilepsy

Controlled Studies

Cannabidiol

        Cunha JM, Carlini EA, Pereira AE, Ramos OL, Pimentel C, Gagliardi R, Sanvito WL, Lander N, Mechoulam R. Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Pharmacology 1980;21(3):175-85.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis (smoked)

        Consroe PF, Wood GC, Buchsbaum H. Anticonvulsant nature of marihuana smoking. JAMA 1975;234(3):306-7.

Cannabidiol

o   Ames FR, Cridland S.: Anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol [letter]. South African Medical Journal 1986;69:14.

o   Trembly B, Sherman M. Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant. Conference on Cannabis and Cannabinoids, Kolympari/Crete, July 1990, cited according to: Consroe P, Sandyk R. Potential role of cannabinoids for therapy of neurological disorders. In: Murphy L, Bartke A, eds. Marijuana/Cannabinoids, Neurobiology and Neurophysiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press 1992, 459-524. [Commentary: No effect of Cannabidiol (300 mg/day) in 10 patients.]

        Trembly B, Sherman M. Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant. Conference on Cannabis and Cannabinoids, Kolympari/Crete, July 1990, cited according to: Consroe P, Sandyk R. Potential role of cannabinoids for therapy of neurological disorders. In: Murphy L, Bartke A, eds. Marijuana/Cannabinoids, Neurobiology and Neurophysiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press 1992, 459-524. [Commentary: Reduction in Reduzierung in frequency of seizures with cannabidiol (900-1200 mg/day) in one patient.]

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Corral VL. Differential effects of medical marijuana based on strain and route of administration: A three-year observational study. J Cannabis Ther 2001;1(3-4):43-59.

        Mortati K, Dworetzky B, Devinsky O. Marijuana: an effective antiepileptic treatment in partial epilepsy? A case report and review of the literature. Rev Neurol Dis 2007;4(2):103-6.

 

Isaacs' Syndrome

Case Report

Dronabinol

        Meyniel C, Ollivier Y, Hamidou M, PŽrŽon Y, Derkinderen P. Dramatic improvement of refractory Isaacs' syndrome after treatment with dronabinol. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2011;113(4):323-4.

 

Intraocular Pressure - Glaucoma

Controlled Studies

Cannabis (smoked)

        Crawford WJ, Merritt JC. Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacololgy and Biopharmacy 1979;17(5):191-196.

        Merritt JC, Crawford WJ, Alexander PC, Anduze AL, Gelbart SS. Effect of marihuana on intraocular and blood pressure in glaucoma. Ophthalmology 1980;87(3):222-8.

Dronabinol

        Tomida I, Azuara-Blanco A, House H, Flint M, Pertwee RG, Robson PJ. Effect of sublingual application of cannabinoids on intraocular pressure: a pilot study. J Glaucoma 2006;15(5):349-353.

Cannabidiol

o   Tomida I, Azuara-Blanco A, House H, Flint M, Pertwee RG, Robson PJ. Effect of sublingual application of cannabinoids on intraocular pressure: a pilot study. J Glaucoma 2006;15(5):349-353.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis (smoked)

        Hepler RS, Frank IM, Petrus R. Ocular effects of marijuana smoking. In: Braude MC, Szara S, eds. The pharmacology of marihuana. Raven Press: New York: 1976;815-828.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Russo EB, Mathre ML, Byrne A, Velin R, Bach PJ, Sanchez-Ramos J, et al. Chronic cannabis use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An examination of benefits and adverse effects of legal clinical cannabis. J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(1):3-57.

 

Topical Administration

Dronabinol

o   Merritt JC, Perry DD, Russell DN, Jones BF. Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma. Journal of Clinical Pharmacololgy 1981;21(8-9 Suppl):467S-471S.

 

Intraocular Pressure - Healthy Subjects

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Cooler P, Gregg JM. Effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on intraocular pressure in humans. Southern Medical Journal 1977;70(8):951-954.

        Jones RT, Benowitz N, Herning RI. The clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1981;21:143S-152S.

o   Levitt M, Wilson A, Bowman D, Kemel S, Krepart G, Marks V, Schipper H, Thomson G, Weinerman B, Weinerman R. Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications. J Clin Pharmacol 1981;21(8-9 Suppl):103S-109S.

 Delta-9-THC, Delta-8-THC, 11-OH-THC, CBD, CBN

        Perez-Reyes M, Wagner D, Wall ME. Davis KH. Intravenous administration of cannabinoids and intraocular pressure. In: Braude MC, Szara S, ed. Pharmacology of marihuana. New York: Raven Press, 1976;829-832.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Plange N, Arend KO, Kaup M, Doehmen B, Adams H, Hendricks S, Cordes A, Huth J, Sponsel WE, Remky A. Dronabinol and retinal hemodynamics in humans. Am J Ophthalmol 2007;143(1):173-4.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Hepler RS, Frank IM. Marihuana smoking and intraocular pressure. Journal of the American Medical Association 1971;217:1392.

        Flom MC, Adams AJ, Jones RT. Marijuana smoking and reduced intraocular pressure in human eye: Drug action or epiphenomenon? Investigative Ophthalmology 1975;14:52-55.

        Hepler R S, Frank I M, Petrus R. Ocular effects of marijuana smoking. In: Braude MC, Szara S, eds. The pharmacology of marihuana. New York: Raven Press, 1976;815-828.

 

Night Vision

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Russo EB, Merzouki A, Molero Mesa J, Frey KA, Bach PJ. Cannabis improves night vision: A pilot study of dark adaptometry and scotopic sensitivity in kif smokers of the Rif Mountains of Northern Morocco. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;93(1):99-104.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis (smoked)

        Russo EB, Merzouki A, Molero Mesa J, Frey KA, Bach PJ. Cannabis improves night vision: A pilot study of dark adaptometry and scotopic sensitivity in kif smokers of the Rif Mountains of Northern Morocco. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;93(1):99-104. 

 

Asthma

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Tashkin DP, Reiss S, Shapiro BJ, Calvarese B, Olsen JL, Lodge JW. Bronchial effects of aerosolized delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy and asthmatic subjects. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1977;115(1):57-65.

        Williams SJ, Hartley JP, Graham JD. Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients. Thorax 1976;31(6):720-723.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Lee YE, Harper CE. Effects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1975;112(3):377-386.

       Vachon L, Mikus P, Morrissey W, FitzGerald M, Gaensler E. Bronchial effect of marihuana smoke in asthma. In: Braude MC, Szara S, eds. The pharmacology of marihuana. Raven Press: New York: 1976;777-784.

Nabilone

o   Gong H Jr, Tashkin DP, Calvarese B. Comparison of bronchial effects of nabilone and terbutaline in healthy and asthmatic subjects. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1983;23(4):127-133

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Frank IM. Acute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects. American Review for Respiratory Diseases. 1974 Apr;109(4):420-8.

Cannabis (smoked)

        Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Frank IM. Acute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects. American Review for Respiratory Diseases 1974 Apr;109(4):420-8.

 

Bronchodilation - Healthy Subjects

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Gong H Jr, Tashkin DP, Simmons MS, Calvarese B, Shapiro BJ. Acute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1984;35(1):26-32.

        Tashkin DP, Reiss S, Shapiro BJ, Calvarese B, Olsen JL, Lodge JW. Bronchial effects of aerosolized delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy and asthmatic subjects. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1977;115(1):57-65.

Nabilone

        Gong H Jr, Tashkin DP, Calvarese B. Comparison of bronchial effects of nabilone and terbutaline in healthy and asthmatic subjects. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1983;23(4):127-133.

 

COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

Controlled Studies

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

        Pickering EE, Semple SJ, Nazir MS, Murphy K, Snow TM, Cummin AR, Moosavi S, Guz A, Holdcroft A. Cannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety. Chron Respir Dis 2011;8(2):109-18.

 

Blood Pressure/Hypertension

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Vandrey R, Umbricht A, Strain EC. Increased Blood Pressure Following Abrupt Cessation of Daily Cannabis Use. J Addict Med 2011;5(1):16-20.

 

Cancer

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Guzm‡n M, Duarte MJ, Bl‡zquez C, Ravina J, Rosa MC, Galve-Roperh I, S‡nchez C, Velasco G, Gonz‡lez-Feria L. A pilot clinical study of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Br J Cancer 2006;95(2):197-203.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Liang C, McClean MD, Marsit C, Christensen B, Peters E, Nelson HH, Kelsey KT. A population-based case-control study of marijuana use and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa) 2009;2(8):759-68.

        Foroughi M, Hendson G, Sargent MA, Steinbok P. Spontaneous regression of septum pellucidum/forniceal pilocytic astrocytomas-possible role of Cannabis inhalation. Childs Nerv Syst 2011;27(4):671-9.

 

Alzheimer's Disease

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Volicer L, Stelly M, Morris J, McLaughlin J, Volicer BJ. Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 1997;12:913-919.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol

        Patel S, Shua-Haim JR, Pass M. Safety and efficacy of dronabinol in the treatment of agitation in patients with AlzheimerÕs disease with anorexia: A retrospective chart review. Abstract, 11th International Conference of the IPA, 17-22 August 2003, Chicago.

        Ross JS, Shua-Haim JR. Open-label study of dronabinol in the treatment of refractory agitation in AlzheimerÕs disease: a pilot study. Abstract, ASCP's 34th Annual Meeting, 12-15 November 2003, San Antonio, USA.

        Walther S, Mahlberg R, Eichmann U, Kunz D. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for nighttime agitation in severe dementia. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2006;185(4):524-8.

Nabilone

        Passmore MJ. The cannabinoid receptor agonist nabilone for the treatment of dementia-related agitation. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2008;23(1):116-7.

 

Neuroprotection

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Jacobus J, McQueeny T, Bava S, Schweinsburg BC, Frank LR, Yang TT, Tapert SF. White matter integrity in adolescents with histories of marijuana use and binge drinking. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2009;31(6):349-55.

 

Schizophrenic Psychosis

Controlled Studies

Cannabidiol

        Leweke FM, Koethe D, Gerth CW, Nolden BM, Schreiber D, HŠnsel A, Neatby MA, Juelicher A, Hellmich M, Klosterkštter J. Cannabidiol as an antipsychotic. A double-blind, controlled clinical trial on cannabidiol vs. amisulpride in acute schizophrenia. IACM 3rd Conference on Cannabinoids in Medicine, 9-10 September 2005, Leiden, International Association for Cannabis as Medicine.

o   Zuardi AW, Hallak JE, Dursun SM, Morais SL, Faria Sanches R, Musty RE, Crippa JA. Cannabidiol monotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. J Psychopharmacol 2006;20(5):683-6.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabidiol

        Zuardi AW, Morais SL, Guimar‹es FS, Mechoulam R. Antipsychotic effect of cannabidiol. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1995;56:485-486.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Dronabinol

        Schwarcz G, Karajgi B, McCarthy R. Synthetic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) can improve the symptoms of schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2009;29(3):255-8.

        Schwarcz G, Karajgi B. Improvement in refractory psychosis with dronabinol: four case reports. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71(11):1552-3.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Schwarcz G, Karajgi B, McCarthy R. Synthetic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) can improve the symptoms of schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2009;29(3):255-8.

        Schwarcz G, Karajgi B. Improvement in refractory psychosis with dronabinol: four case reports. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71(11):1552-3.

 

Bipolar Disorder

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB. The use of cannabis as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder: anecdotal evidence and the need for clinical research. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1998;30(2):171-7.

o   El-Mallakh RS, Brown C. The effect of extreme marijuana use on the long-term course of bipolar I illness: a single case study. J Psychoactive Drugs 2007;39(2):201-2.

        Ringen PA, Vaskinn A, Sundet K, Engh JA, J—nsd—ttir H, Simonsen C, Friis S, Opjordsmoen S, Melle I, Andreassen OA. Opposite relationships between cannabis use and neurocognitive functioning in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Psychol Med 2010;40(8):1337-47.

 

Depression

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Regelson W, Butler JR, Schulz J, Kirk T, Peek L, Green ML, Zalis MO. Delta-9-tetrahydro­cannabi­nol as an effective antidepressant and appetite-stimulating agent in ad­vanced cancer pa­tients. In: Braude MC, Szara S, editors. Pharmacology of mari­hu­ana. Vol 2. New York: Ra­ven Press, 1976. p. 763-776.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Ware MA, Adams H, Guy GW. The medicinal use of cannabis in the UK: results of a nationwide survey. Int J Clin Pract 2005;59(3):291-5.

 

Anxiety

Controlled Studies

Cannabidiol

        Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, de Oliveira DC, De Martinis BS, Kapczinski F, Quevedo J, Roesler R, Schršder N, Nardi AE, Mart’n-Santos R, Hallak JE, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA. Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Na•ve Social Phobia Patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Feb 9. [Epub ahead of print]

        Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, Wichert-Ana L, Duran FL, Martin-Santos R, Sim›es MV, Bhattacharyya S, Fusar-Poli P, Atakan Z, Santos Filho A, Freitas-Ferrari MC, McGuire PK, Zuardi AW, Busatto GF, Hallak JE. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. J Psychopharmacol 2011;25(1):121-30.

 

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Villagonzalo KA, Dodd S, Ng F, Mihaly S, Langbein A, Berk M. The relationship between substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder in a methadone maintenance treatment program. Compr Psychiatry 2011;52(5):562-6.

        Cornelius JR, Kirisci L, Reynolds M, Clark DB, Hayes J, Tarter R. PTSD contributes to teen and young adult cannabis use disorders. Addict Behav 2010;35(2):91-4.

        Reznik I. Medical cannabis use in post-traumatic stress disorder: a naturalistic observational study. Abstract presented at the Cannabinoid Conference 2011, 8-10 September, Bonn, Germany.

 

Alcohol Dependency

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Mikuriya TH. Cannabis substitution. An adjunctive therapeutic tool in the treatment of alcoholism. Medical Times 1970;98(4):187-91.

        Mikuriya TH. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol: a harm-reduction approach. J Cannabis Ther 2004;4(1):79-93.

        Reiman A. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs Harm Reduct J 2009;6:35.

 

Opioid Dependency

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

o   Hermann D, Klages E, Welzel H, Mann K, Croissant B. Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms. Addict Biol 2005;10(2):165-9.

        O'Connell TJ, Bou-Matar CB. Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001-2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of  4117 applicants. Harm Reduct J 2007;4:16.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis (smoked)

        Raby WN, Carpenter KM, Rothenberg J, Brooks AC, Jiang H, Sullivan M, Bisaga A, Comer S, Nunes EV Intermittent marijuana use is associated with improved retention in naltrexone treatment for opiate-dependence. Am J Addict 2009;18(4):301-8.

 

Cocaine/Crack Dependency

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis (smoked)

        Aharonovich E, Garawi F, Bisaga A, Brooks D, Raby WN, Rubin E, Nunes EV, Levin FR. Concurrent cannabis use during treatment for comorbid ADHD and cocaine dependence: effects on outcome. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2006;32(4):629-35.

        Labigalini E Jr, Rodrigues LR, Da Silveira DX. Therapeutic use of cannabis by crack addicts in Brazil. J Psychoactive Drugs 1999;31(4):451-5.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Dreher M. Crack heads and roots daughters: The therapeutic use of cannabis in Jamaica. J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(3-4):121-33.

 

Cannabis Dependency

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

        Haney M, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, Nasser J, Bennett A, Zubaran C, Foltin RW. Marijuana withdrawal in humans: effects of oral THC or divalproex. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004;29(1):158-70.

 

Case Reports, Surveys

Dronabinol

        Levin FR, Kleber HD. Use of dronabinol for cannabis dependence: two case reports and review. Am J Addict 2008;17(2):161-4.

 

Sleep

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol, Cannabidiol

        Nicholson AN, Turner C, Stone BM, Robson PJ. Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2004;24(3):305-13.

 

Different Diseases

Case Reports, Surveys

Cannabis (smoked)

        Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB. Marihuana, the forbidden medicine. Rev. and exp. ed. New Haven: Yale University Press; 1997.

        Randall RC, O'Leary AM. Marijuana Rx: The patients' fight for medicinal pot. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press; 1998.

        Corral VL. Differential effects of medical marijuana based on strain and route of administration: A three-year observational study. J Cannabis Ther 2001;1(3-4):43-59.

        Grotenhermen F, Schnelle M. Survey on the medical use of cannabis and THC in Germany. J Cannabis Ther 2003;3(2):17-40.

        Gieringer D. Medical use of cannabis: Experience in California. In: Grotenhermen F, Russo E, editors. Cannabis and cannabinoids: Pharmacology, toxicology, and therapeutic potential. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press; 2001. p. 153-70.

        Ware MA, Adams H, Guy GW. The medicinal use of cannabis in the UK: results of a nationwide survey. Int J Clin Pract 2005;59(3):291-5.

        Russo EB, Mathre ML, Byrne A, Velin R, Bach PJ, Sanchez-Ramos J, et al. Chronic cannabis use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An examination of benefits and adverse effects of legal clinical cannabis. J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(1):3-57.

        O'Connell TJ, Bou-Matar CB. Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001-2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of  4117 applicants. Harm Reduct J 2007;4:16.

        Bottorff JL, Johnson JL, Moffat BM, Mulvogue T. Relief oriented use of marijuana by teens. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2009;4(1):7.